Category Archives: urban grassland

Field work news – Chapter 1

Plants, plant traits and ground-dwelling arthropods

Unfortunately, spring was very cold and rainy but however, we ‘bravely’ started our field work for the BIBS project some weeks ago. Currently, our team is doing the plant diversity assessments and also pitfall traps are exposed. Moreover, we are measuring plant traits to analyse intraspecific trait variations along the urbanisation gradient – we are going to run these analyses for invertebrate taxa and hopefully sand lizard populations as well – wait and see. In addition, some students are observing phenology of plant species at 30 sites – very labour-intensive. Today I emptied our pitfall traps for the first time and I can’t wait to study our samples in the lab.

New paper on urban grasshoppers!

Grasshopper diversity of urban wastelands is primarily boosted by habitat factors has been published in Insect Diversity and Conservation.

Authors Eckert S, Möller M & Buchholz S

Abstract Urban wastelands are considered to be valuable habitats for biodiversity conservation, but empirical evidence for several poorly investigated taxa such as grasshoppers is still pending – although urgently required for reasonable habitat management and urban planning. For the first time, we analysed grasshopper diversity of urban wastelands at different diversity levels, namely, alpha and functional diversity. In 2014, we selected 24 urban wastelands in the city of Berlin (Germany).

Urban wasteland harbouring a Calliptamus italicus population

Urban wasteland harbouring a Calliptamus italicus population

We analysed the relationships between local and landscape factors and different measurements of diversity (species richness, Simpson diversity, functional dispersion, functional evenness and functional divergence). We sampled 21 species, which represented about 45% of the entire grasshopper fauna of Berlin and numerous species of conservation interest were present at the investigated sites. Grasshopper diversity was best explained by local factors, with herb cover having a positive effect on alpha and functional diversity. Human impact and accessibility increased the conservation value of urban wasteland sites.

Late successional stages are very important for a high grasshopper diversity in general but early stages are mandatory to promote species of conservation concern. Urban wastelands can be turned into most promising transition zones for city-dwellers that fulfil the needs of conservationists and specialised species at the same time. To achieve this goal we recommend minimum requirements for successful habitat management.


Urban meadows as habitat for wild bees – new perspectives for pollinator diversity

Conference talk in Braunschweig

The German Society of general and applied Entomology (DGaaE) and the German Scientific Society for Plant Protection and Plant Health (DPG) organised a conference on insect diversity in cities (III. Urbane Pflanzen Conferenz). I contributed a talk on habitat function of urban meadows for wild bees with emphasis on urbanisation eurbane-pflanzen-conferenzffects (see Abstract in German). Due to a very diverse audience with many relevant stakeholders and decision-makers (e.g. scientists, gardeners, landscape planners, landscape architects, authorities and NGOs) it was possible to elaborate this topic from different perspectives. At the end we had very interesting – sometimes controverse – discussions to develop recommendations how to make cities more insect friendly and to comment on the new white book “Grün in der Stadt” which was recently send out for preview. The official presentation of the white book will be in May 2017.

New paper on urban pollinators

Disentangling urban habitat and matrix effects on wild bee species has been published in PeerJ.

Authors Fischer LK, Eichfeld J, Kowarik I & Buchholz S

Abstract In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance.  Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous andpollinators not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as study region, we aimed to investigate (a) if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b) how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e.g., management, flower density) and urban matrix variables (e.g., isolation, urbanization); and (c) to what extend grassland restoration can promote bees in urban environments. In summer 2012, we collected 62 bee species belonging to more than 20 % of the taxa known for Berlin. Urbanization significantly affected species composition of bees; 18 species were affiliated to different levels of urbanization. Most bee species were not affected by any of the environmental variables tested, and urbanization had a negative effect only for one bee species. Further, we determined that restoration of diverse grasslands positively affected bee species richnesss in urban environments. We conclude that differently structured and managed greenspaces in large-scale housing areas can provide additional foraging habitats and refuges for pollinators. This supports approaches towards a biodiversity friendly management within urban regions and may be of particular importance given that anthropogenic pressure is increasing in many rural landscapes.